Laser cutting is a precise method of cutting a design from a given material using a Cad file to guide it. This involves firing a laser which cuts by melting, burning or vaporizing the material . Universal lasers are very commonly used, you can achieve really fine level of cutting details and engravings on wide variety of materials.
The lathe is a tool used mainly for shaping pieces of metal, cibatool, wood and other solid materials. They are also used in cutting , drilling and sanding to create symmetrical objects from solid materials by causing the workpiece to be held and rotated by the lathe while a tool bit is advanced into the work causing the cutting action.
In the image below you can see the domes of St Paul's Cathedral (my college project 2003) which I have made using lathe.
CNC (Computer Numerical Control):
As the name suggests CNC machining is a process used in the manufacturing sector that involves the use of computers to control machine tools. Computer converts the CAD software into numbers and these numbers act as coordinates of a graph to control the cutter. Tools that can be controlled in this manner include lathes, mills, routers and grinders.
Advantages of CNC machine: precise edges of 90 degree angles can be obtained and thickens ranging from 0.5mm to 100mm can be cut. Length solid wave patterns (which can be used as moulds in the vacuum forming machines to create thin plastic sheets), semi spheres and many other shapes can be achieved with precise details.
The image (family tree) below is made using CNC machine.
Vacuum foaming is a simplified version of thermoforming, where a sheet of plastic is heated to forming temperatures which softens the plastic and under low pressure vacuum the sheet is sucked into the mould. The sheet is then ejected from the mould and cooled. Suitable materials for use in vacuum foaming are conventional thermoplastics, ABS sheets (vacuum forming grade ) and high impact polystyrene sheets and PETG.
It has many applications in manufacturing medicine, architecture, custom art and design. The 3D printing process turns a whole object into thousands of tiny little slices, then makers it from the bottom-up, slice by slice. Those tiny layers stick together to form a solid object. Materials used for 3D printing are ABS plastics, PLA polyamide (nylon), glass filled polyamide, stereo lithography materials (epoxy resins) photopolymers and polycarbonate
The Image below is created using 3D printer.
It is a machine used to cut vertical and horizontal sheets from materials like MDF, Plastics, Plywood sheets of varying lengths and widths and depth (up to 2200mm x 1200mm and 35mm depth).
A table saw is a woodworking tool, consisting of a circular saw blade, mounted on an arbor, that is driven by an electric motor (either directly, by belt or by gears). The blade protrudes through the surface of a table, which provides support for the materials, usually wood, being cut. the depth of the cut is varied by moving the blade up and down. The higher the blade protrudes above the table, the deeper the cut that is made in the material. The angle of the cut is controlled by adjusting the angle of the blade.
Band saw machines are saws that consist of a continuous metal band (called the band saw blade) that rides on the two wheels rotating in the same plane. It contains a round and serrated blade, and can be used to process wood, metal and various other materials. The most common use for the band saw is cutting irregular shapes. A band saw also makes the smoothest cuts and, with the appropriate blade, can be used to cut materials other than the wood, including metal.
The disc sander is a powerful tool used to smooth materials such as woods and plastics using sandpaper of various grades. It is also used to remove small amounts of waste materials.
Is a rotating cylindrical drum, which is covered with gritty sandpaper (replaceable and available in various grades of sandpaper), to smooth out saw marks, rough curved edges and inside hole cuts. The oscillating spindle sander, in addition to the steady rotation of the drum, moves the drum up and down during the rotations. Sanding curves on oscillation spindle sander is perfect for sanding curved cuts created on a band saw.
All sandblasters work on roughly the same principles, finely ground silica sans is used to clean and abrade a surface, typically metal, of any rust, paint or other unwanted surface materials. Sandblasting is one of the most efficient ways to clean and prepare surfaces.
A pillar drill is fixed style of drilling machine that can be mounted on a stand or bolted to the floor or work bench, it is far more accurate. It is used for drilling holes through materials including a range of woods, plastics and metals. It is normally bolted to a bench so that it cannot be pushed over and that large pieces of material can be drilled safely.
An air compressor is a device that converts power using an electric motor into potential energy stored in pressurized air. An air compressor forces more and more air into a storage tank, increasing the pressure. Commonly used in spray painting, nail gun etc.